ĝer-, ĝerǝ-, ĝrē-

ĝer-, ĝerǝ-, ĝrē-
    ĝer-, ĝerǝ-, ĝrē-
    English meaning: to rub; to be old; grain
    Deutsche Übersetzung: “morsch, reif werden, altern”
    Note: also, esp. in formations with formants -no-, “corn, grain, Kern” (only NW-IE); die oldest meaning seems “rub” (hence “Reibefrucht, small Zerriebenes”) gewesen to sein, intr.-pass. “aufgerieben become, from age or disease, malady”.
    Material: O.Ind. járant- “ fragile, easily broken; unstable, dilapidated, old, graybeard” (= Osset. zärond “old”, Gk. γέρων; compare also Pers. zar “ graybeard, Greisin”), járati “makes fragile, easily broken; unstable, dilapidated, läßt altern” (“*reibt auf”), jaraṇá- “ frail, old”, jarás- f. (nom. sg. jarǘ ḥ , IE -ōs) and jarǘ “Altwerden, age”; redupl. jarjara- “frail, breakable, decrepit “ (: Gk. γεργέριμος); lengthened grade jǘ ra- “alternd” (= Pers. zür “weak, woeful, wretched, miserable “, zür “ graybeard, Greisin”; also in Aor. jüriṣ uḥ ); heavy basis in O.Ind. jarimán- m. “hohes age, Altersschwäche”, jī́ ryati, jū́ ryati “wird fragile, easily broken; unstable, dilapidated, morsch, altert”, participle jūrṇ á -, jīrṇ á - “ fragile, easily broken; unstable, dilapidated, abgelebt, abgenutzt, zerfallen, morsch, old”; Av. azarǝšant- “not alternd” (participle of s-Aor.), azarǝma- “not abnehmend” (from *zarǝma- m. “das Verkommen”), zairina- “aufreibend, erschlaffend”, zarǝta- “altersschwach” (probably = O.Ind. *jīrta-), with formant u (: Gk. γραῦς? O.N. kǫr, see below) zaurvan- m. “Greisenalter, Altersschwäche”, zaurura- “altersschwach, fragile, easily broken; unstable, dilapidated “, perhaps also zrvan- : zrū̆ n- “time”; Arm. cer “old, graybeard” (*ĝero-); Gk. γέρων “ graybeard” (γέροντ-), γερούσιος “den Geronten zukommend”, γερουσία “Ratsversammlung (the Ä ltesten )”, γέρας n. (IE *ĝerǝ-s, from the heavy basis) originally “*age, *Altersvorrecht”, hence “Ehrengabe, Ehrenstellung, Belohnung”, γεραρός “ehrwũrdig, stately, respectable “, later also “old, greisenhaft”, γεραιός “old” probably from *γερασ-ι̯ός; in the meaning “age” is γέρας ersetzt through γῆρας; das η from γηράσκω “altere”, participle present γηρά̄ς “alternd”, themat. Impf. ἐγήρᾱ, etc. auf γῆρας (for γέρας) figurative, also auf γηράω “altere, reife”, γηραλέος (by Hes. also γεραλέος) “old”; Att. γραῦς, gen. γρᾱ(*F)ός (Hom. dat. γρηΐ) “old wife, woman” (Hom. γρηΰς probably Lateere Umschrift a richtigen *γρη(F)ίς after dem gewöhnlichen γραῦς); perhaps in relationship to Av. zaurvan- m. “Greisenalter”, perhaps originally nom. *ĝeŕ-us : gen.*ĝerǝ-u̯-ós, from which γρᾱFός; s. Schwyzer Gk. I, 574; redupl. γεργέριμος “from selbst abfallende or reife Feige or Olive” (see above); O.N. karl “man, husband, alter man, husband, husband, free man, husband” = O.H.G. karal ds., with ablaut O.E. ceorl “free man, husband the niedrigsten Klasse, husband”, Eng. churl “Bauer, fool “, M.L.G. kerle “free, gewöhnlicher man, husband, kräftiger man, husband”, Ger. (from dem N.Ger.) Kerl; basic meaning probably “alter man, husband”; O.C.S. zьrěti “ripen”, zьrělъ “reif”, causative sьzori “ὡρίμησε”. In the meaning “corn, grain, Kern”: Lat. grünum “corn, grain, Kern” (*gr̥-nóm, = O.Ind. jīrṇ á -, see above) = O.Ir. grün, Welsh etc. grawn (sg. gronyn) ds. (borrowing from dem Lat. is not erweislich) = Lith. žì rnis, Ltv. zir̃nis m. “pea”, O.Pruss. syrne f. “corn, grain”; O.C.S. zrьno, Serb. zȑno n. “corn, grain”; Goth. kaúrn, O.H.G. O.E. O.N. korn, Ger. Korn, O.E. cyrnel “Kern”, next to which zero grades O.H.G. kërno, O.N. kjarni m., ds. (probably also Ger. dial. kern “Milchrahm” as the beim Buttern körnig werdende, M.H.G. kern “Butterfaß”, O.N. kjarni, kirna ds., O.E. ćiern, Eng. churn ds.). Ein *grüros (*gr̥̄-rós) “zerrieben” is probably in Lat. glürea (*grürei̯ ü) “ gravel “ continual; ein d-present *ĝrō-dō perhaps in Goth. gakrōtōn “ crunch “.
    References: WP. I 599 f., WH. I 605 f., 618 f., Trautmann 371 f., Schwyzer Gk. I 514, 574, 682 under Anm. 5.

Proto-Indo-European etymological dictionary. 2015.

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